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How to Strengthen Interoception with Optimal HRV

In previous posts in this series, we introduced the concept of interoception, which is the ability to perceive and interpret our body's signals. We have also discussed how interoception is related to various aspects of physical and mental health, such as chronic pain, stress, emotion regulation, and well-being. In this final post, we will explore how you can use the Optimal HRV app to measure and improve your interoceptive skills.

Measuring RMSSD with Optimal HRV

One indicator of interoception is the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). RMSSD measures the activity of the vagus nerve, which connects the brain and the heart and regulates many bodily functions, such as breathing, digestion, and inflammation. A higher RMSSD indicates a more flexible and adaptive nervous system, which can respond better to internal and external changes. A lower RMSSD suggests a more rigid and stressed nervous system, impairing interoceptive awareness and leading to various health problems.

The Optimal HRV app allows you to measure your RMSSD easily and accurately using the Optimal HRV Reader or other HRV Bluetooth devices. You can track your RMSSD over time and see how it changes in different situations, such as before and after a stressful event, during a relaxation exercise, or throughout the day. By monitoring your RMSSD, you can gain more insight into your physiological state and how it affects your interoceptive perception. You can also use your RMSSD as a feedback signal to guide your interoceptive training, which we will explain in the next section.

Training Heart Rate Variability with Optimal HRV

Another way to enhance interoception is to train your heart rate variability (HRV). The Optimal HRV app offers several powerful tools to train your HRV: resonance frequency breathing assessment and HRV biofeedback (including a range of mindfulness and self-compassion training).

Resonance frequency breathing involves breathing at a specific rate that synchronizes your heart rate and breathing. This rate is usually between 4 and 7 breaths per minute, depending on the individual. Breathing at your resonance frequency can increase your HRV and optimize your nervous system function. The Optimal HRV app helps you find your resonance frequency and guides you through breathing exercises to improve your interoceptive sensitivity and awareness.

HRV biofeedback is a technique that involves observing your HRV in real-time and adjusting your breathing and attention to enhance it. Using the Optimal HRV app, you can see your HRV displayed on your screen as a waveform or a graph and use it as a feedback signal to learn how to modulate your physiological state. HRV biofeedback can help you develop more control over your interoceptive signals and increase your interoceptive confidence and clarity.

Mindfulness Practices with Optimal HRV

A third way to boost interoception is to practice mindfulness, which is the ability to pay attention to the present moment with openness and curiosity. Mindfulness can help you cultivate a more positive and accepting attitude toward your interoceptive experiences, which can reduce anxiety and distress. Mindfulness can also help you integrate your interoceptive information with your cognitive and emotional processes, enhancing your decision-making and self-regulation.

The Optimal HRV app provides mindfulness practices that complement your HRV training and improve your interoceptive skills. You can choose from different types of meditation, such as body scan, loving-kindness, or breath awareness, and follow the instructions given by the app. You can also use the app to measure your HRV before and after each mindfulness session and see how it affects your physiological state. By practicing mindfulness regularly with the Optimal HRV app, you can increase your interoceptive attention and metacognition.


Interoception is a crucial skill that can influence your physical and mental health, as well as your performance and well-being. Using the Optimal HRV app, you can measure and train your interoceptive abilities in various ways, such as measuring RMSSD, training HRV, and practicing mindfulness. These methods can help you strengthen different components of interoception, such as sensitivity, accuracy, awareness, confidence, and clarity. By improving your interoception, you can enhance your connection with your body and mind and live a more healthy and fulfilling life.

We hope you have enjoyed this series of blog posts on interoception and Optimal HRV. If you want to learn more about the app and how it can help you, please visit our website at You can also download the app for free from the App Store or Google Play and start your interoceptive journey today!


  • Mehling, W. E., Price, C., Daubenmier, J. J., Acree, M., Bartmess, E., & Stewart, A. (2012). The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). PloS one, 7(11), e48230.

  • Zamariola, G., Maurage, P., Luminet, O., & Corneille, O. (201>9). Improving interoceptive sensibility through heart rate variability biofeedback: A registered report. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 138, 66-77.

  • Zamariola, G., Vlemincx, E., Luminet, O., Van den Bergh, O., & Corneille, O. (2020). Effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on the Perception and Management of Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychological Medicine, 1-14.


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